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Cleaning Pakistan's Air

Cleaning Pakistan's Air

Cleaning Pakistan's Air

Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

  • By: Ernesto Sanchez-Triana, Santiago Enriquez, Javaid Afzal, Akiko Nakagawa & Asif Shuja Khan

₹805.50 ₹895.00 Save: ₹89.50 (10%)

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ISBN: 9788130929439

Bind: Hardbound

Year: 2015

Pages: 204

Size: 178 x 254 mm

Publisher: The World Bank

Published in India by: Viva Books

Exclusive Distributors: Viva Books

Sales Territory: India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Myanmar


Air pollution in Pakistan's urban centers is among the most severe in the world. Every year, it results in more than 20 thousand premature deaths among adults and in almost five million cases of illnesses among young children in Pakistan. In addition, urban air pollution affects the quality of life and the economy and environment of Pakistan. Despite its severity, urban air pollution has not received the necessary attention of policy makers and is seldom covered by the media. Cleaning Pakistan's Air: Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution Abatement advocates that Pakistan allocate resources for interventions that can significantly improve air quality. This report details a broad spectrum of research on Pakistan's air pollution challenges and identifies a comprehensive set of steps to improve air quality.

The authors’ research underpins the conclusions that addressing Pakistan's urban air pollution requires coordinated interventions to strengthen air quality management, build agencies’ institutional capacity, bolster the environmental legal and regulatory framework, implement policy reforms and investment, and fill knowledge gaps. Recognizing that Pakistan's policy makers face major obstacles and can pursue only a few strategic interventions at the same time, the research also provides a framework to prioritize the actions that will bring about the largest improvements in air quality.

This book will be of interest to governmental officers, academic groups working in the fields of energy, governance, and infrastructure economics and finance, as well as to the general public.

Target Audience:

This book will be of interest to governmental officers, academic groups working in the fields of energy, governance, and infrastructure economics and finance, as well as to the general public.



Executive Summary • Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution in Pakistan • Introduction • Data Availability and Methodology • Analysis of Air Quality Data • Health Damages Associated with Air Pollution • Air Quality Regulatory Framework • Air Quality Management and Climate Change • Policy Options for Abating Urban Air Pollution from Mobile Sources • Policy Options for Abating Urban Air Pollution from Stationary Sources • Capacity Building for Air Quality Management • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • Bibliography

Chapter 1: Overview • Introduction • Objective • Methodology • Analytical Value-Added • Structure of the Book • Notes • Bibliography

Chapter 2: Air Pollution in Pakistan • Introduction • Analysis of Air Quality Data • Air Pollution and the Quality of Life in Pakistan • The Economic Cost of Air Pollution in Pakistan • Conclusions • Notes • Bibliography  

Chapter 3: Air Quality Management Institutions • Introduction • Pakistan's Air Quality Regulatory Framework • Organizational Structure for Air Quality Management • Coordination and Decentralization of Air Quality Management Responsibilities • Monitoring Ambient Air Pollution • The Judiciary and the Enforcement of Regulations • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References

Chapter 4: Mobile Sources • Introduction • Ambient Air Quality and Exposed Population in Karachi • Lead Exposure • Neuropsychological Effects in Children under Five Years • Social Cost of Health Effects • Interventions to Improve Air Quality • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References

Chapter 5: Industrial and Other Stationary Sources • Introduction • Inventory of Stationary Sources • Industrial Air Pollution • Control of Air Pollution from Stationary Sources • Control of Diffuse Sources • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References

Chapter 6: Potential Co-Benefits of Air Quality Management for Climate Change • Introduction • Climate Change and Air Pollution Interactions • Air Quality Management and Climate Change Co-Benefits in Pakistan • Policy Options • Conclusions and Recommendations • Note • References

Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations • Conclusions • References


About the Authors:

Ernesto Sanchez-Triana is a Lead Environmental Specialist for the World Bank's Latin America and Caribbean Region. Dr. Sanchez- Triana holds MS and PhD degrees from Stanford University and has authored numerous publications on environmental economics, energy efficiency, environmental policy, poverty and social impact assessment, and green growth. Prior to joining the Bank, he was a professor at the National University of Colombia and served as Director of Environmental Policy at Colombia's National Department of Planning.

Santiago Enriquez is an international consultant with more than 15 years of experience in the design, implementation, and evaluation of policies relating to the environment, conservation, and climate change. He has developed analytical work for the World Bank, United States Agency for lnternational Development, and the Inter-American Development Bank. From 1998 to 2002, Mr. Enriquez worked at the lnternational Affairs Unit of Mexico's Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. Mr. Enriquez holds a master's degree in public policy from the Harvard Kennedy School.

Javaid Afzal is a Senior Environment Specialist at the World Bank's Islamabad office. Dr. Afzal holds a PhD in water resources management from Cranfield University, U.K., and master's and bachelor's degrees in agricultural engineering from the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Dr. Afzal has published in a number of peer-reviewed journals on the topics mentioned above.

Akiko Nakagawa is a Senior Environmental Specialist in the World Bank's South Asia Region Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change Unit at the Bank's headquarters, where she works on climate change mitigation and adaptation in the region. Before joining the Bank, she served in the Japanese government's Ministry of Environment as a climate change negotiator. Prior to joining the government, she worked at JBIC/OECF and managed a lending portfolio comprising projects such as watershed management, energy efficiency, afforestation, flood-resilient community development, and river embankment. She has a master's degree in urban planning (urban environment) from New York University.

Asif Shuja Khan is a former Director General, Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Climate Change Division). He was the Director General of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) since its inception in 1993 and until February 2014. He has more than 30 years of professional experience in environmental management and has worked with international agencies like the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, Japanese lnternational Cooperation Agency, United Nations Environmental Programme, United Nations Development Programme, and United Nations lnternational Children's Emergency Fund. Under his leadership, Pak-EPA established Air Quality Monitoring systems in Pakistan's major cities and adopted national ambient air quality standards and Euro emission standards for vehicles. Mr. Shuja holds a master's degree from the Stevens Institute of Technology, New Jersey, U.S. 


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