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Encyclopedia of Genetics & Evolution

Encyclopedia of Genetics & Evolution

Encyclopedia of Genetics & Evolution

6 Volume Set

  • By: Russ Hodge

₹22,495.50 ₹24,995.00 Save: ₹2,499.50 (10%)

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ISBN: 9788130915555

Bind: Hardbound

Year: 2016

Pages: 1148

Size: 152 x 228 mm

Publisher: Facts On File Inc.

Published in India by: Viva Books

Exclusive Distributors: Viva Books

Sales Territory: India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka

Description:

Genetics and Evolution is a six- volume set that explores the principal fields of modern molecular biology from their origins to the most recent discoveries and technological breakthroughs. A century and a half after evolutionary and genetic science began, biology and medicine are coming together to form a powerful new view of the living world that is having a dramatic effect on human health and society. As well as introducing the basic terms and concepts, the set examines the most significant social and ethical issues surrounding current biomedical research and serves as a valuable guide to the world that science is creating.

 

VOLUMES IN THE SET INCLUDE

  • Evolution: The History of Life on Earth
  • The Molecules of Life: DNA, RNA, and Proteins
  • Genetic Engineering: Manipulating the Mechanisms of Life
  • Developmental Biology: From a Cell to an Organism
  • Human Genetics: Race, Population, and Disease
  • The Future of Genetics: Beyond the Human Genome Project

 

1. Evolution: The History of Life on Earth

The theory of evolution is based on three main principles: heredity, variation, and selection. In the 19th century, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace sought to explain how these processes work together to produce new species. Evolution provided the first scientific system to investigate the origins and relationships of living creatures and today serves as a unifying theory explaining facts that cannot really be accounted for in any other way. Describing the theory as clearly as possible, Evolution demonstrates why it was necessary, how it has been received by society, and why it occupies a central role in science today.

The volume includes information on

  • DNA as the "language" of evolution
  • eugenics
  • genetics and human behavior
  • genomes
  • heredity and variation
  • the origins of evolution
  • sequencing
  • the voyages of Darwin and Wallace

The book contains 50 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Genetics and Evolution is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the ?revolution? of evolutionary research and discovery.

 

Contents:

Foreword • Preface • Acknowledgments • Introduction • Chapter 1. A World without Evolution • Creation, Religions, and the Age of the Earth • Astronomy and Physics Pose Major Challenges to Church Doctrines • Geologists Postulate an Ancient Earth • The ?New Geology?: Lyell and Darwin • The Problem of Fossils • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and the Transmutation of Species • Erasmus Darwin and the ?Living Filament? • Natural Theology and ?Intelligent Design? • Linnaeus and the Classification of Life • Thomas Malthus and the Threat of Overpopulation • Chapter 2. Building the Foundations: The Voyages of Darwin and Wallace • The Voyage of the Beagle • Geological Discoveries, Fossils, and Extinctions • Life in Space and Time • Barnacles and Experiments • Alfred Russel Wallace in the Spice Islands • The Theory Is Made Public • Who Really Discovered Evolution? Chapter 3. The Theory and Society's Response • A Recipe for New Species • Natural Selection versus Bottlenecks • Misinterpretations of Evolution • Initial Reactions to Evolution • Herbert Spencer and the Evolution of Society • Francis Galton and Positive Eugenics • Negative Eugenics • Eugenics and the Holocaust • Evolution in Schools and the Scopes ?Monkey Trial? • Chapter 4. A Synthesis between Evolution and Genetics • Mendel's Work and Its Rediscovery • First Attempts to Link Genetics and Evolution • The Quest for Mutations: Thomas Morgan's Fly Lab • Understanding Populations through Mathematics • The Beginnings of Unification: Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright • Recipes for Isolation: J. B. S. Haldane • Peppered Moths and Finches • The Rise of New Species: Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ernst Mayr • Evolution as a Game: John Maynard Smith • ?Punctuated Equilibrium?: Steven Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge • Evolution from the Gene's Point of View: Richard Dawkins • The Evolution of Human Behavior • Chapter 5. Evolution in the Age of DNA • DNA and the Molecular Basis of Evolution • New Theories of the Origins of Life • From Single Cells to Multicellular Organisms • Reading Human Evolution from Fossils • Major Eras in the Development of Plant and Animal Life • Fossil DNA • Chapter 6. Evolution in the Age of Genomes • From the Evolution of Genes to Genomes • Growing and Shrinking Genomes • Phylogeny: Updating the ?Tree of Life? • Minimal Genomes and the Last Universal Common Ancestor • The Origins of Genetic Diseases • From Sequencing Organisms to Sequencing the World • Coevolution • Evolutionary Developmental Biology • The Evolutionary Origins of Complex Organs • From Genes to Forms—Understanding Nature's Toolbox • Future Questions and Reflections • Chronology • Glossary • Further Resources • Index

 

2. The Molecules of Life: DNA, RNA, and Proteins

The Molecules of Lifeexplains the chemistry and physics of organic molecules, which initiate processes within tiny cells that evolve into amazingly complex plants and animals. In addition to the basic concepts needed to understand the field, methods used to explore the structures and behavior of DNA, RNA, and proteins are also discussed. The book also shows how and why scientists study biological molecules, including how they are built, how they interact, and what roles they play in the formation of cells and organisms.

The volume includes information on

  • a cell’s architecture
  • communication between and inside cells
  • disease and the molecular age
  • how cells access and use hereditary information
  • the immune system
  • microscopy
  • the physics and chemistry of creating life
  • the structure and function of DNA and RNA

The book contains 40 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Genetics and Evolution is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the ?revolution? of evolutionary research and discovery.

 

Contents:

Foreword • Preface • Acknowledgments • IntroductionChapter 1. The Physics and Chemistry of Life: Basic Principles and Methods • The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology • From Atoms to Molecules • Levels of Protein Structure • How Mutations Change Proteins • Basic Molecular Functions • X-rays and Crystallography • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance • The First Synchrotron Experiments • Atomic Force Microscopy • Photonic Force Microscopy • Using Light Microscopes to Investigate Molecules • Electron Microscopes and Cryo-electron Tomography • Chapter 2. How the Cell Stores and Uses Information • The Double Helix • From DNA's Structure to Its Functions ?Working with Rosalind Franklin: A Personal Account • The Structure of Single Genes • Activating a Gene • Epigenetics: Controlling Genes at the Level of Chromatin • DNA Computers • The Structure and Functions of RNAs • RNAs and the Control of Translation • Noncoding RNAs • Transposons • Making and Refining Proteins • Summary • Chapter 3. Communication Between and Inside Cells • Kinase Receptors and Ligands • Membrane Channels and Pumps • The Discovery of the Water Channel • Neurotransmitters and Synapses • Molecular Amplifiers and Vision • Chemotaxis • Developmental Signals and the Origins of Animals • Chapter 4. Traffic and Cell Architecture • Microtubules and Motors • Microtubules and Evolution's Toolbox • Why Bacteria Do Not Need Brains • Actin Filaments • Traffic into and out of the Cell Nucleus • Lipids, Membranes, and Vesicles • Chapter 5. Molecules of Immunity, Health, and Disease • The Innate Immune System • Adaptive Immunity • How Antibodies and T Cell Receptors Are Made • Using Antibodies in Research and Medicine • A Devil in Distress: Can Cancer Be a Transmissible Disease? • Viruses and Cancer • The Molecules of AIDS • Amyloids and Neurodegenerative Disease • Prions and Mad Cow Disease Steroids and Other Hormones • Nicotine and Addiction • Conclusion • Chronology • Glossary • Further Resources • Index

 

3. Genetic Engineering: Manipulating the Mechanisms of Life

Scientists are learning to manipulate the genes of plants and animals, to change existing organisms, and to ?create? new ones. By taking control of the mechanisms that govern heredity in other species, humans are actively directing their own evolution. Breakthroughs are coming so quickly that many in the lay and scientific communities find them strange and frightening. Genetic Engineeringtraces the history of genetic science up to the present day and describes some of the developments in the first few years of the 21st century and how society is coping with the ethical challenges that accompany them.

The volume includes information on

  • cell theory and chromosomes
  • cloning
  • the ethics of genetic engineering
  • genetically modified plants and animals
  • genomes
  • the history of genetic engineering
  • molecular genetics
  • the ?science? of heredity and evolution

The book contains more than 30 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Genetics and Evolution is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the “revolution” of evolutionary research and discovery.

 

Contents:

Foreword • Preface • Acknowledgments • Introduction • Chapter 1 From Breeding to a Science of Heredity • The Origins of Domestic Plants and Animals • The Rise of Agriculture and Domestication • Early Ideas of Inheritance • The Girl Who Gave Birth to Rabbits • Heredity and the Theory of Evolution • Gregor Mendel Discovers the Laws of Heredity • Chapter 2. Classical Genetics (1900-1950) • Cell Theory and the Discovery of Chromosomes • The Rediscovery of Mendel's Work • Chromosomes and Heredity • The Debate over Natural Selection • Sex and the X-Y Chromosomes • Fruit Flies and the Birth of the Modern Laboratory • Gene Maps • Chromosome Puzzles • Maize and “Jumping Genes” • “One Gene Makes One Enzyme” • Chapter 3. Molecular Genetics: What Genes Are and How They Work (1950-1970) • Physics Stimulates New Ways of Thinking about Genes • Genes Are Made of DNA • The Double Helix • RNA Is the Messenger • The Architecture of Genes • On-Off Switches for Genes • The Flow of Information from Gene to Protein in Complex Organisms • Chapter 4. The Rise of Genetic Engineering (1970-1990) Recombinant DNA Molecular Cloning and Using Bacteria as Drug Factories • “Natural” Genetic Engineering” DNA Sequencing • The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) • Making and Marketing Genetically Modified Plants and Animals for Food • Knockouts, Knock Ins, and Other Methods to Study Gene Functions • Beatrice Mintz: A Pioneer of Mouse Genetics • Transgenic Animals and Models of Human Disease • DNA Fingerprinting • Chapter 5. Genetic Engineering in the Age of Genomes • The Complexity of Genomes • Introns and Alternative Splicing • Noncoding RNAs • Quality Control: How Cells Detect Defective Genes • RNA Knockouts • Molecular Machines • Conditional Mutagenesis • Other Methods of Controlling the Output of Genes • Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapies • DNA Vaccines and T-Cell Therapies • Personalized Medicine in the Genome AgeChapter 6. Ethics and Genetic Engineering • Reproductive Cloning • Therapeutic Cloning and Experiments with Human Cells • Genetic Testing and Concerns about Eugenics • GM Foods and the Rise of Environmental Movements • Owning Genes, Genomes, and Living Beings • A Look Farther Ahead • Chronology • Glossary Further Resources • Index

 

4. Developmental Biology: From a Cell to an Organism

Developmental Biology offers an intriguing examination of the relationship among cells, genes, and the environment and of the obstacles and achievements of molecular biologists attempting to understand how to “build” a human body. The book illustrates the evolution of developmental biology—from the earliest history of embryology to the latest theories—by explaining how the role of research from various branches within biology led the scientific community to a new understanding of the complexity of organisms.

The volume includes information on

  • blood cell differentiation
  • cells and the brain
  • the first phases of a human life
  • the formation of organs
  • Hox genes and genome evolution
  • the origins of major organs
  • stem cells, tissue regeneration, and cancer
  • xenotransplantation

The book contains more than 30 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Genetics and Evolution is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the “revolution” of evolutionary research and discovery.

 

Contents:

Foreword • Preface • Acknowledgments • Introduction • Chapter 1. Life as a Single Cell: Creating a New Animal • Making Bodies from Cells • The Rise of Sexual Reproduction • The Beginnings of a Life: Egg and Sperm • The Odd Case of Jumping Genes • Fertilization • Cleavage and the Cell Cycle • The Machines of Cell Division • Summary • Chapter 2. The Rise of Structure: Early Growth and Differentiation • Cleavage and Implantation of the Embryo • Gastrulation: Layers and Migrations • Organizers: The Experiments of Spemann and Mangold • How Signals Work • Molecular Signals in Gastrulation • From the Organizer to the Notochord • Summary • Chapter 3. The Origins of the Major Organs • From the Notochord to the Nervous System • Secondary Neurulation and the Early Brain • The Development of Unique Features of the Human Brain • Hox Genes: A Universal Scaffold for the Head-to-Tail • Axis From Left to Right: Symmetries and Asymmetries • The Heart “Developmental Molecules and Heart Disease • Building Blood Vessels • Blood Vessels in Cancer and Other Diseases • The Digestive System • Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder • Lungs • Bones • Skeletal Muscle • Skin • Limbs • Cell Death: A Sculptor of Development • Eyes Summary • Chapter 4. Cell Differentiation and Disease • Stem Cells and Potential Therapies • Illuminating the Cell” Stem Cells and Cancer • Blood Cells • Neurons and Glia • Summary • Chapter 5. Evolution and Development • Ernst Haeckel and Recapitulation Theory • Genomes and Homologs • Hox Genes and Genome Evolution • An Evolutionary Tool Kit • Gene Regulator Homologies and the Origins of Organs • The Flip Side of Evolution • Xenotransplantation and the Creation of Artificial Species • Summary and Some Final Thoughts • Chronology • Glossary Further Resources • Inde

 

5. Human Genetics: Race, Population, and Disease

Human Genetics: Race, Population, and Disease offers a fascinating introduction to the field of human genetics—from its historical roots to recent discoveries in and out of the laboratory—focusing on its applications to medicine, forensic science, and genetic counselling. The book looks at human beings as individuals who arise through an interaction of genes and the environment and explores the rich variety within the human species, including the difference between individuals and groups, the genetic meaning of race, and how genes influence behavior and society.

The volume includes information on

  • the application of genetics to solve crimes
  • diagnosis and genetic counseling
  • evolutionary psychology
  • the genetics of cancer
  • the “history” of the human genome
  • human diversity
  • modern genetics and human beings
  • stem cell research

The book contains more than 30 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Genetics and Evolution is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the “revolution” of evolutionary research and discovery.

 

Contents:

Foreword • Preface • Acknowledgments • Introduction • Chapter 1. From Genes to Human Beings • Mendel and the Laws of Heredity • Cells, Chromosomes, and Sex • Discovering and Mapping Genes • From Genotype to Phenotype • Stem Cells and Development • Mutations • Making Blood in the Lab” Chapter 2. The Evolution of the Human Genome • The Origins of the Genome • Traces of the Early Evolution of Animals • Molecular Clocks • Comparing the Chimpanzee and Human Genomes • The Search for the Earliest Hominid • The Evolution of the Human Brain • Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosomal Adam • Populating the Globe • What Happened to the Neanderthals” • Chapter 3. Using Genetics to Solve Ancient Mysteries and Modern Crimes • tzi's Granddaughter • The Origins of the Basques • Making a Pedigree • The Heirs of Thomas Jefferson • The Grave of Jesse James The Fate of Anastasia, Grand Duchess of Russia • Chapter 4. The Genetics of Health and Disease • Finding Disease Genes • Multifactorial Diseases • Diagnosis and Genetic Counseling • Learning to Repair Defective Genes • The Genetics of Cancer • Stem Cells and Cancer • Mary-Claire King: Cancer Pioneer and Activist • Chernobyl and Its Impact on the Human Genome • Genes of the Adaptive Immune System • Pharmacogenetics and the Development of Individualized Medicine • Chapter 5. The Genetics of Behavior, Human Diversity, and Society • The Science and Politics of Human Diversity • Evolutionary Psychology • Twin Studies and the Genetics of IQ • The Genetics of Cognitive Disorders • Kim Peek and the Sauants • Human Adaptation and Competition between Societies • Conclusion: A Look into the Future: The Genetic Engineering of Human Beings” • Chronology • Glossary Further Resources • Inde

 

6.The Future of Genetics: Beyond the Human Genome Project

The Future of Genetics: Beyond the Human Genome Project is a fascinating overview of current innovations in genetic research. The book examines how sophisticated tools of genetic analysis and manipulation are being developed in laboratories all over the world and considers the impact they will have on issues that scientists consider, including the causes of aging and death, the nature of the brain, and quality of life. Drawing from many research streams-such as advances in molecular and cell biology, imaging, and informatics-genetics is shown to encompass a view of nature more varied than previously imagined by the scientific community.

The volume includes information on

  • biodiversity
  • computers and biology
  • consciousness and the brain
  • the digital embryo
  • evolution, genetics, and mathematics
  • gene manipulation
  • literature and science
  • the -new- pharmacology

The book contains more than 30 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Genetics and Evolution is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the -revolution- of evolutionary research and discovery.

 

Contents:

Foreword • Preface • Acknowledgments • Introduction • Chapter 1. The Origins of Twenty-first-Century Biology • Plants, Animals, and Cells • Cell Biology and Medicine • Evolution, Genetics, and Mathematics • The Failed Marriage between Evolution and Sociology • Cell Biology, Chemistry, and Genes • Physics, Chemistry, and Genetics • Genetics, Embryology, and Evolution • The Rise of Genetic Engineering • Computers and Biology • Chapter 2. Literature, Culture, and Social Perceptions of ScienceFrankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus • Evolution, Religion, and Schools • Eugenics and Brave New World • The Shape of Humans to Come-the Transhumans of Patricia Piccinini • Silent Spring and the Rise of Environmental Movements • Genetically Modified Crops and the Marketing of Science • Cloned Dinosaurs and Invaders from Space • Chapter 3. Studying Life in the Post-Genome Era • Genotypes and Phenotypes • Genomic Technologies • Biodiversity and Metagenomics • Metagenomics, Extremophiles, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life • Manipulating Genes • Imaging Molecules within Living Cells The Digital Embryo • Imaging Bodies • Chapter 4. The Future of Humanity and the World • Designer Babies and a Post-Human Future • Curing Brain Diseases and the New Pharmacology • Cures from Shamans and Traditional Healers • Consciousness and the Brain • The Quest for Eternal Youth and Immortality • Saving the World: Ants, Humans, and the Fate of the Earth • Chronology • Glossary • Further • Resources • Index

 

 

 

About the Author:

Russ Hodgeis a writer and science education expert at the Max Delbr--ck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in Berlin, Germany, one of the world's leading biology institutes. The author of many popular science books, he has also published hundreds of articles and interviewed such world-renowned scientists as Nobel Prize winners Max Perutz, Roald Hoffmann, Harold Varmus, and Christiane N--sslein-volhard.

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