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Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology

Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology

Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology

  • By: Jeffrey C. Pommerville

₹2,515.50 ₹2,795.00 Save: ₹279.50 (10%)

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ISBN: 9789380853741

Bind: Paperback

Year: 2014

Pages: 974

Size: 8.5 x 11 Inch

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Published in India by: Jones & Bartlett India

Exclusive Distributors: Viva Books

Sales Territory: India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan

Description:

The Tenth Edition of Jeffrey Pommerville's best-selling, award-winning classic text Fundamentals of Microbiology provides nursing and allied health students with a firm foundation in microbiology. Updated to reflect the Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology as recommended by the American Society of Microbiology, the fully revised tenth edition includes all-new pedagogical features and the most current research data. This edition incorporates updates on infectious disease and the human microbiome, a revised discussion of the immune system, and an expanded Learning Design Concept feature that challenges students to develop critical-thinking skills.

Accessible enough for introductory students and comprehensive enough for more advanced learners, Fundamentals of Microbiology encourages students to synthesize information, think deeply, and develop a broad toolset for analysis and research. Real-life examples, actual published experiments, and engaging figures and tables ensure student success. The texts's design allows students to self-evaluate and build a solid platform of investigative skills. Enjoyable, lively, and challenging, Fundamentals of Microbiology is an essential text for students in the health sciences.

Key features of the fully revised and updated tenth edition includes:

  • All - new or updated discussions of the human microbome, infectious diseases, the immune system, and evolution
  • Expanded and updated pedagogical features throughout
  • Chapter Challenges and objectives emphasize key concepts and promote material absorption
  • Redesigned and updated figures and tables increase clarity and student understanding
  • Study Smart notes help ensure student success

Target Audience:

Fundamentals of Microbiology is written for introductory microbiology courses and is geared toward students in health and allied health science curricula such as nursing, dental hygiene, medical assistance, sanitary science, agriculture, environmental science, and health administration.

 

Contents:
 

PART 1: FOUNDATIONS OF MICROBIOLOGY

Chapter 1: Microbiology: Then and Now • The Discovery of Microbes Leads to Questioning Their Origins • Microscopy???Discovery of the Very Small • Do Animalcules Arise Spontaneously? • Disease Transmission Can Be Interrupted • Vaccination Prevents Infectious Disease • Disease Transmission Does Not Result from a Miasma • The Stage Is Set • The Classical Golden Age of Microbiology Reveals the Germ • Louis Pasteur Proposes That Germs Cause Infectious Disease • Pasteur's Work Stimulates Disease Control and Reinforces Disease Causation • Robert Koch Formalizes Standards to Equate Germs with Infectious Disease • Competition Fuels the Study of Infectious Disease • With the Discovery of Other Microbes, the Microbial World Expands • Other Global Pioneers Contribute to New Disciplines in Microbiology • The Microbial World Can Be Catalogued into Five Major Groups • A Second Golden Age of Microbiology Involves the Birth of Molecular Biology and Chemotherapy • Molecular Biology Relies on Microorganisms As Model Systems • Two Types of Cellular Organization Are Realized • Antibiotics Are Used to Cure Infectious Disease • The Third Golden Age of Microbiology Is Now • Microbiology Continues to Face Many Challenges • Microbial Ecology and Evolution Are Helping to Drive the New Golden Age
Chapter Review

Chapter 2: The Chemical Building Blocks of Life • Organisms Are Composed of Atoms • Atoms Are Composed of Charged and Uncharged Particles • Atoms Can Vary in the Number of Neutrons or Electrons • Electron Placement Determines Chemical Reactivity • Chemical Bonds Form Between Reactive Atoms • Ionic Bonds Form Between Oppositely Charged Ions • Covalent Bonds Share Electrons • Hydrogen Bonds Form Between Polar Groups or Molecules • Chemical Reactions Change Bonding Partners • All Living Organisms Depend on Water • Water Has Several Unique Properties • Acids and Bases Affect a Solution's pH • Cell Chemistry Is Sensitive to pH Changes • Living Organisms Are Composed of Four Types of Organic Compounds • Functional Groups Define Molecular Behavior • Carbohydrates Consist of Sugars and Sugar Polymers • Lipids Are Water-Insoluble Compounds • Nucleic Acids Are Large, Information- Containing Polymers • Proteins Are the Workhorse Polymers in Cells
Chapter Review


Chapter 3: Concepts and Tools for Studying Microorganisms • The Prokaryotes Are Not Simple, Primitive Organisms • Prokaryotic Cells Exhibit Some Remarkable and Widespread Behaviors • Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Share Similarities in Organizational Patterns • Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Also Have Structural Distinctions • Classifying Microorganisms Reveals Relationships Between Organisms • Classification Attempts to Catalog Organisms • Kingdoms and Domains: Making Sense of Taxonomic Relationships • Nomenclature Gives Scientific Names to Organisms • Classification Uses a Hierarchical System • Many Methods Are Available to Identify and Classify Microorganisms • Microscopy Is Used to Visualize the Structure of Cells • Many Microbial Agents Are in the Micrometer Size Range • Light Microscopy Is Used to Observe Most Microorganisms • Staining Techniques Provide Contrast • Other Light Microscopy Optics Can Also Enhance Contrast • Electron Microscopy Provides Detailed Images of Cells, Cell Parts, and Viruses
Chapter Review

Chapter 4: Structure of Bacterial and Archaeal Cells • There is Tremendous Diversity Among the Bacteria and Archaea • The Domain Bacteria Contains Some of the Most Studied Microbial Organisms • The Domain Archaea Contains Organisms with Diverse Physiologies • Prokaryotes Can Be Distinguished by Their Cell Shape and Arrangements • Variations in Cell Shape and Cell Arrangement Exist • An Overview to Bacterial and Archaeal Cell Structure • Cell Structure Organizes Cell Function • External Cell Structures Interact with the Environment • Pili Are Primarily Used for Attachment • Flagella Provide Motility • The Glycocalyx Serves Several Functions • Most Bacterial and Archaeal Cells Have a Cell Envelope • The Bacterial Cell Wall Is a Tough and Protective External Shell • The Archaeal Cell Wall Also Provides Mechanical Strength • The Cell Membrane Represents a Selectively Permeable Barrier • Archaeal Membranes Are Structurally Unique • The Cell Cytoplasm Is Packed with Internal Structures • The Nucleoid Represents a Subcompartment Containing the Chromosome • Plasmids Are Found in Many Bacterial and Archaeal Cells • Other Subcompartments Exist in the Cell Cytoplasm • Cytoskeletal Proteins Regulate Cell Division and Help Determine Cell Shape
Chapter Review

Chapter 5: Microbial Growth and Nutrition • Microbial Reproduction Is Part of the Cell Cycle • Binary Fission Is Part of the Cell Cycle • Bacterial and Archaeal Cells Can Grow Exponentially • Microbial Growth Progresses Through Distinct Phases • A Bacterial Growth Curve Illustrates the Dynamics of Growth • Bacterial Cells Can Exist In Metabolically Inactive States • Optimal Microbial Growth Is Dependent on Several Physical Factors • Culture Media Are Used to Grow Microbes and Measure Their Growth • Culture Media Are of Two Basic Types • Culture Media Can Be Modified to Select for or Differentiate Between Microbial Species • Population Measurements Are Made Using Pure Cultures • Population Growth Can Be Measured in Several Ways
Chapter Review

Chapter 6: Microbial Metabolism  • Enzymes and Energy Drive Cellular Metabolism • Enzymes Catalyze All Chemical Reactions in Cells • Enzymes Act Through Enzyme-Substrate Complexes • Enzymes Often Team Up in Metabolic Pathways • Enzyme Activity Can Be Inhibited • Energy in the Form of ATP Is Required for Metabolism • Glucose Catabolism Generates Cellular Energy • Glucose Contains Stored Energy That Can Be Extracted • Glycolysis Is the First Stage of Energy Extraction • The Citric Acid Cycle Extracts More Energy from Pyruvate • Oxidative Phosphorylation Is the Process by Which Most ATP Molecules Form • There Are Other Pathways to ATP Production • Other Nutrients Represent Potential Energy Sources • Anaerobic Respiration Produces ATP Using Other Final Electron Acceptors • Fermentation Produces ATP Using an Organic Final Electron Acceptor • Photosynthesis Converts Light Energy to Chemical Energy • Photosynthesis Is a Process to Acquire Chemical Energy • Microbes Exhibit Metabolic Diversity • Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Get Their Energy and Carbon in Different Ways
Chapter Review

Chapter 7: Control of Microorganisms: Physical and Chemical Methods • Microbial Growth Can Be Controlled in Several Ways • Sterilization and Sanitization Are Key to Good Public Health • There Are Various Physical Methods to Control Microbial Growth • Heat Is the Most Common Physical Control Methods • Dry Heat Has Useful Applications • Moist Heat Is More Versatile Than Dry Heat • Filtration Traps Microorganisms • Ultraviolet Light Can Be Used to Control Microbial Growth • Other Types of Radiation Also Can Sterilize Materials • Preservation Methods Retard Spoilage by Microorganisms in Foods • Chemical Control Usually Involves Disinfection • Chemical Control Methods Are Dependent on the Object to Be Treated • Chemical Agents Are Important to Laboratory and Hospital Safety • Antiseptics and Disinfectants Can Be Evaluated for Effectiveness • A Variety of Chemical Methods Can Control Microbial Growth • Halogens Oxidize Proteins • Phenol and Phenolic Compounds Denature Proteins • Heavy Metals Interfere with Microbial Metabolism • Alcohols Denature Proteins and Disrupt Membranes • Soaps and Detergents Act as Surface-Active Agents • Peroxides Damage Cellular Components • Some Chemical Agents Combine with Nucleic Acids and/or Cell Proteins
Chapter Review

PART 2: THE GENETICS OF MICROORGANISMS

Chapter 8: Microbial Genetics • The Hereditary Molecule in All Organisms Is DNA • Bacterial and Archaeal DNA Is Organized Within the Nucleoid • DNA Within a Nucleoid Is Highly Compacted • Many Microbial Cells Also Contain Plasmids • DNA Replication Occurs Before a Cell Divides • DNA Replication Occurs in Three ?Stages • DNA Polymerase Only Reads in the to ?3? to ?5? Direction • Gene Expression Produces RNA and Protein for Cell Function • Transcription Copies Genetic Information into Complementary RNA • The Genetic Code Consists of Three-Letter Words • Translation Is the Process of Making the Polypeptide • Antibiotics Interfere with Gene Expression • Gene Expression Can Be Controlled in Several Ways • Transcription and Translation Are Localized • Mutations Are Permanent Changes in a Cell's DNA • Mutations Are the Result of Heritable Changes in a Genome • Point Mutations Can Affect Protein Structure and Function • Repair Mechanisms Attempt to Correct Mistakes or Damage in the DNA • Transposable Genetic Elements Can Also Cause Mutations • Techniques Exist for Identifying Mutants • Plating Techniques Select for Specific Mutants or Characteristics • The Ames Test Can Identify Potential Mutagens
Chapter Review

Chapter 9: Gene Transfer, Genetic Engineering, and Genomics • Bacterial Cells Can Recombine Genes in Several Ways • Genetic Information Can Be Transferred Vertically and Horizontally • Transformation Is the Uptake and Expression of DNA in a Recipient Cell • Conjugation Involves Cell-to-Cell Contact • Conjugation Also Can Transfer Chromosomal DNA • Transduction Involves Viruses as Agents for Horizontal Transfer of DNA • Genetic Engineering Involves the Deliberate Transfer of Genes Between Organisms • Genetic Engineering Was Born from Genetic Recombination • Biotechnology Has Spawned Many Commercial and Practical Products • DNA Probes Can Identify a Cloned Gene or DNA Segment • Microbial Genomics Studies Genes at the Single Cell to Community Levels • Many Microbial Genomes Have Been Sequenced • Segments of the Human Genome Have ?Microbial Ancestors? • Microbial Genomics Will Advance Our Understanding of the Microbial World • Comparative Genomics Brings a New Perspective to Defining Infectious Diseases and Studying Evolution • Metagenomics Is Identifying the Previously Unseen Microbial World
Chapter Review

PART 3: BACTERIAL DISEASES OF HUMANS

Chapter 10: Airborne Bacterial Diseases • The Respiratory System Possesses an Indigenous Microbiota • Upper Respiratory Tract Defenses Limit Microbe Colonization of the Lower Respiratory Tract • Several Bacterial Diseases Affect the Upper Respiratory Tract • Pharyngitis Is an Inflammation of the Throat • Diphtheria Is a Life-Threatening Illness • The Epiglottis Is Subject to Infection, Especially in Children • The Nose Is the Most Commonly Infected Region of the Upper Respiratory Tract • Ear Infections Are Common Illnesses in Early Childhood • Acute Bacterial Meningitis Is a Rapidly Developing Inflammation • A Few Bacterial Species Cause Neonatal Meningitis • Many Bacterial Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract Can Be Life Threatening • Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Is Highly Contagious • Tuberculosis Remains a Major Cause of Death Worldwide • Infectious Bronchitis Is an Inflammation of the Bronchi • Pneumonia Can Be Caused by Several Bacterial Species • Community-Acquired Pneumonia Is Also Caused by Intracellular Pathogens • Inhalational Anthrax Is an Occupational Hazard
Chapter Review

Chapter 11: Foodborne and Waterborne Bacterial Diseases • The Digestive System Has an Extensive Indigenous Microbiota • The Digestive System Is Composed of Two Separate Categories of Organs • Our Understanding of the Human Oral and Gastrointestinal Microbiome Is Rapidly Improving • Bacterial Diseases of the Oral Cavity Can Affect One's Overall Health • Dental Caries Causes Pain and Tooth Loss in Affected Individuals • Periodontal Disease Can Arise from Bacteria in Dental Plaque • Bacterial Diseases of the GI Tract Are Usually Spread Through Food and Water • GI Tract Diseases May Arise from Intoxications or Infections • There Are Several Ways Foods or Water Become Contaminated • Some Bacterial Diseases Are the Result of Foodborne Intoxications Food Poisoning Can Be the Result of Enterotoxins • GI Infections Can Be Caused by Several Bacterial Pathogens • Bacterial Gastroenteritis Often Produces an Inflammatory Condition • Several Bacterial Species Can Cause an Invasive Gastroenteritis • Gastric Ulcer Disease Can Be Spread Person to Person
Chapter Review

Chapter 12: Soilborne and Arthropodborne Bacterial Diseases • Several Soilborne Bacterial Diseases Develop from Endospores • Anthrax Is an Enzootic Disease • Tetanus Causes Hyperactive Muscle Contractions • Gas Gangrene Causes Massive Tissue Damage • Leptospirosis Is an Emerging Zoonotic Disease • Bacterial Diseases Can Be Transmitted by Arthropods • Plague Can Be a Highly Fatal Disease • Tularemia Has More Than One Disease Presentation • Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Are Transmitted by Spirochetes • Rickettsial and Ehrlichial Diseases Are Arthropodborne • Rickettsial Infections Are Transmitted by Arthropods • Other Tickborne Zoonoses Are Emerging Diseases in the United States
Chapter Review
    
Chapter 13: Sexually Transmitted and Contact Transmitted Bacterial Diseases • Portions of the Female and Male Reproductive Systems Contain an Indigenous Microbiota • The Male and Female Reproductive Systems Consist of Primary and Accessory Sex Organs • The Female Reproductive System Is Prone to More Infections than the Male Reproductive System • Common Vaginal Infections Come from Indigenous Microbiota • Many Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Caused by Bacteria • Chlamydial Urethritis Is the Most Frequently Reported STD • Gonorrhea Can Be an Infection in Any Sexually Active Person • Syphilis Is a Chronic, Infectious Disease • Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases Also Exist • Urinary Infections Are the Second Most Common Body Infection • The Urinary System Removes Waste Products from the Blood and Helps Maintain Homeostasis • Part of the Urinary Tract Harbors an Indigenous Microbiota • Urinary Tract Infections Occur Primarily in the Urethra and Bladder • Contact Diseases Can Be Caused by Indigenous Bacterial Species • The Skin Protects Underlying Tissues from Microbial Colonization • The Skin Harbors an Indigenous Microbiota • Acne Is the Most Common Skin Condition in the Developed World • Indigenous Microbiota Can Form Biofilms • Contact Diseases Can Also Be Caused by Exogenous Bacterial Species • Staphylococcal Contact Diseases Have Several Manifestations • Streptococcal Diseases Can Be Mild to Severe • Other Wounds Also Can Cause Skin Infections • Leprosy (Hansen Disease) Is a Chronic, Systemic Infection • Several Contact Diseases Affect the Eye • Some Bacterial Eye Infections Can Cause Blindness
Chapter Review

PART 4: VIRUSES AND EUKARYOTIC MICROORGANISMS

Chapter 14: The Viruses and Virus-Like Agents • Filterable Infectious Agents Cause Disease • Many Scientists Contributed to the Early Understanding of Viruses • Viruses Have a Simple Structural Organization • Viruses Are Tiny Infectious Agents • Viruses Are Grouped by Their Shape • Viruses Have a Host Range and Tissue Specificity • Viruses Can Be Classified by Their Genome • A Taxonomic Scheme for All Viruses Has Yet to Be Universally Adopted • Viral Replication Follows a Set of Common Steps • The Replication of Bacteriophages Can Follow One of Two Cycles • Animal Virus Replication Often Results in a Productive Infection • Some Animal Viruses Produce a Latent Infection • Viruses and Their Infections Can Be Detected in Various Ways • Detection of Viruses Often Is Critical to Disease Identification • Some Viruses Are Associated with Human Tumors and Cancers • Cancer Is an Uncontrolled Growth and Spread of Cells • Viruses Are Associated with About 20% of Human Tumors • Oncogenic Viruses Transform Infected Cells • Emerging Viruses Arise from Genetic Recombination and Mutation • Emerging Viruses Usually Arise Through Natural Phenomena • Virus-Like Agents Include Viroids and Prions • Viroids Are Infectious RNA Particles • Prions Are Infectious Proteins
Chapter Review

Chapter 15: Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract and Skin • Viruses Account for Most Upper Respiratory Tract Infections • Rhinovirus Infections Are the Chief Cause of the Common Cold • Adenovirus Infections Also Produce • Symptoms Typical of a Common Cold • Viral Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract Can Be Severe • Influenza Is a Highly Communicable Acute Respiratory Infection • Some Paramyxovirus Infections Can Cause Serious Respiratory Disease • Other Respiratory Viruses Also Produce Pneumonia • Herpesviruses Cause Several Human Skin Diseases • Human Herpes Simplex Infections Are Widespread and Often Recurrent • Chickenpox Is No Longer as Prevalent a Disease in the United States • Other Herpesviruses Also Cause Human Disease • Several Other Viral Diseases Affect the Skin • A Few Viruses Cause Typical Childhood Illnesses • Some Human Papillomavirus Infections Cause Warts • Poxvirus Infections Have Had Great Medical Impacts on Populations
Chapter Review

Chapter 16: Viral Infections of the Blood, Lymphatic, Gastrointestinal, and Nervous Systems • Viral Infections Can Affect the Blood and the Lymphatic System • Two Herpesviruses Cause Blood Diseases • Several Hepatitis Viruses Are Bloodborne • Some Viral Diseases Cause Hemorrhagic Fevers • Flaviviruses Can Cause a Terrifying and Severe Illness • Members of the Filoviridae Produce Severe Hemorrhagic Lesions • Members of the Arenaviridae Are Associated with Chronic Infections in Rodents • Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract Are Major Global Health Problems • Hepatitis Viruses A and E Are Transmitted by the Gastrointestinal Tract • Several Unrelated Viruses Can Cause Viral Gastroenteritis • Viral Diseases of the Nervous System Can Be Deadly • The Rabies Virus Is of Great Medical Importance Worldwide • The Polio Virus May Be the Next Infectious Disease Eradicated • Arboviruses Can Cause a Type of Primary Encephalitis
Chapter Review

Chapter 17: Eukaryotic Microorganisms: The Fungi • The Kingdom Fungi Includes the Molds and Yeasts • Fungi Share a Combination of Characteristics • Fungal Growth Is Influenced by Several Factors • Reproduction in Fungi Involves Spore Formation • Fungi Have Evolved into a Variety of Forms • Fungi Can Be Classified into Several Major Groups • Yeasts Represent a Term for Any Single- Celled Stage of a Fungus • Some Fungi Cause Intoxications • Some Fungi Can Be Poisonous or Even Deadly When Consumed • Some Mushrooms Produce Mycotoxins • Some Fungi Can Invade the Skin • Dermatophytosis Is an Infection of the Skin, Hair, and Nails • Candidiasis Often Is a Mild, Superficial Infection • Sporotrichosis Is an Occupational Hazard • Many Fungal Pathogens Cause Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases • Cryptococcosis Usually Occurs in Immunocompromised Individuals • Histoplasmosis Can Produce a Systemic Disease • Blastomycosis Usually Is Acquired Via the Respiratory Route • Coccidioidomycosis Can Become a Potentially Lethal Infection • Pneumocystis Pneumonia Can Cause a Lethal Pneumonia • Other Fungi Also Cause Mycoses
Chapter Review

Chapter 18: Eukaryotic Microorganisms: The Parasites • Protists Exhibit Great Structural and Functional Diversity • Most Protists Are Unicellular and Nutritionally Diverse • The Protists Encompass a Variety of Parasitic Lifestyles • Protistan Parasites Attack the Skin, and the Digestive and Urinary Tracts • Leishmania Can Cause a Cutaneous or Visceral Infection • Several Protistan Parasites Cause Diseases of the Digestive System • A Protistan Parasite Also Infects the Urinary Tract • Many Protistan Diseases of the Blood and Nervous System Can Be Life Threatening • Plasmodium Can Be a Deadly Blood Parasite • The Trypanosoma Parasites Can Cause Life-Threatening Systemic Diseases • Babesia Is an Apicomplexan Parasite • Toxoplasma Causes a Relatively Common Blood Infection • Naegleria Can Infect the Central Nervous System • Parasitic Helminths Cause Substantial Morbidity Worldwide • There Are Two Groups of Parasitic Helminths • Several Trematodes Can Cause Human Illness • Tapeworms Survive in the Human Intestines • Humans Are Hosts to at Least Roundworm Species • Roundworms Also Infect the Lymphatic System
Chapter Review

PART 5: INTERACTIONS AND IMPACT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH HUMANS

Chapter 19: Infection and Disease • The Host and Microbe Form an Intimate Relationship in Health and Disease • The Human Body Maintains a Symbiosis with Its Microbiota • The Human Microbiome Begins at Birth • Pathogens Differ in Their Ability to Cause Disease • Several Events Must Occur for Disease to Develop in the Host • Establishment of Infection and Disease Involves Host and Pathogen • Diseases Progress Through a Series of Stages • Pathogen Entry into the Host Depends on Cell Adhesion and the Infectious Dose • Breaching the Host Barriers Can Establish Infection and Disease • Successful Invasiveness Requires Pathogens to Have Virulence Factors • Pathogens Must Be Able to Leave the Host to Spread Disease • Infectious Disease Epidemiology Includes Frequency and Spread of Disease • Epidemiologists Often Have to Identify the Reservoir of an Infectious Disease • Epidemiologists Have Several Terms that Apply to the Infectious Disease Process • Infectious Diseases Can Be Transmitted in Several Ways • Diseases Also Are Described by How They Occur Within a Population • Nosocomial Infections Are Serious Health Threats Within the Healthcare System • Infectious Diseases Continue to Challenge Public Health Organizations
Chapter Review

Chapter 20: Resistance and the Immune System: Innate Immunity • The Immune System Is a Network of Cells and Molecules to Defend Against Foreign Substances • Blood Cells Form an Important Defense for Innate and Adaptive Immunity • The Lymphatic System Is Composed of Cells and Tissues Essential to Immune Function • Innate and Adaptive Immunity Compose a Fully Functional Human Immune System • Surface Barriers Are Part of Innate Immunity • Host Defensive Barriers Limit Pathogen Entry • Coordinated Cellular Defenses Respond to Pathogen Invasion • Innate Immunity Depends on Receptor Recognition of Common Pathogen- Associated Molecules • Phagocytosis Is a Nonspecific Defense Mechanism to Clear Microbes from Infected Tissues • Inflammation Plays an Important Role in Fighting Infection • Moderate Fever Benefits Host Defenses • Natural Killer Cells Recognize and Kill Abnormal Cells • Effector Molecules Damage Invading Pathogens • Complement Marks Pathogens for Destruction • Interferon Puts Cells in an Antiviral State
Chapter Review

Chapter 21: Resistance and the Immune System: Adaptive Immunity • The Adaptive Immune Response Targets the Specific Invading Pathogen • The Ability to Eliminate Pathogens Requires a Multifaceted Approach • Adaptive Immunity Generates Two Complementary Responses to Most Pathogens • Lymphoid Progenitors Differentiate into Several Types of Lymphocytes • Clonal Selection Activates the Appropriate B and T Cells • Humoral Immunity Is an Antibody Response to Pathogens in Body Fluids • Antibodies Share a Common Structure • There Are Five Immunoglobulin Classes • Antibody Responses to Pathogens Are of Two Types • Antibody Diversity Is a Result of Gene Rearrangements • Antibody Interactions Mediate the Disposal of Antigens (Pathogens) • Cell-Mediated Immunity Detects and Eliminates Intracellular Pathogens • Cell-Mediated Immunity Relies on T Lymphocyte Receptors and Recognition • Naive T Cells Mature into Effector T Cells • Activated Cytotoxic T Cells Destroy Virus- Infected Cells • Some Antigens Are T-Cell Independent
Chapter Review

Chapter 22: Immunity and Serology • Immunity to Disease Can Be Generated Naturally or Artificially • Adaptive Immunity Can Result by Actively Producing Antibodies to an Antigen • Whole Agent Vaccines Contain Weakened or Inactivated Antigens • Newer Vaccines Contain Only Subunits or Fragments of Antigens • Some Vaccines Are Specifically Recommended for Adults • Adaptive Immunity Also Can Result by Passively Receiving Antibodies to an Antigen • Herd Immunity Results from Effective Vaccination Programs • Do Vaccines Have Dangerous Side Effects? • Serological Reactions Can Be Used to Diagnose Disease • Serological Reactions Have Certain Characteristics • Neutralization Involves Antigen-Antibody Reactions • Precipitation Requires the Formation of a Lattice between Soluble Antigen and Antibody • Agglutination Involves the Clumping of Antigens • Complement Fixation Can Detect Antibodies to a Variety of Pathogens • Labeling Methods Are Used to Detect Antigen-Antibody Binding • Monoclonal Antibodies Are Used for Immunotherapy • Monoclonal Antibodies Are Becoming a ?Magic Bullet? in Biomedicine
Chapter Review

Chapter 23: Immune Disorders and AIDS • Type I Hypersensitivity Represents a Familiar Allergic Response • Type I Hypersensitivity Is Induced by Allergens • Type I Hypersensitivities Can Be Localized or Systemic • Allergic Reactions Also Are Responsible for Triggering Many Cases of Asthma • Why Do Only Some People Have Allergies? • Therapies Sometimes Can Control Allergies • Other Types of Hypersensitivity Represent Immediate or Delayed Reactions • Type II Hypersensitivity Involves Cytotoxic Reactions • Type III Hypersensitivity Involves an Immune Complex Reaction • Type IV Hypersensitivity Is Mediated by Antigen-Specific T Cells • Autoimmune Disorders and Transplantation Are Immune Responses to ?Self? • An Autoimmune Disorder Is a Failure to Distinguish Self from Nonself • Transplantation of Tissues or Organs Is an Important Medical Therapy • Immunosuppressive Agents Prevent Allograft Rejection • Immunodeficiency Disorders Can Be Inherited or Acquired • Immunodeficiencies Can Involve Any Aspect of the Immune System • The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Is Responsible for HIV Infection and AIDS
Chapter Review

Chapter 24: Antimicrobial Drugs • Antimicrobial Agents Are Chemical Substances Used to Treat Infectious Disease • The History of Chemotherapy Originated with Paul Ehrlich • Fleming's Observation of the Penicillin Effect Ushered in the Era of Antibiotics • Antimicrobial Agents Have a Number of Important Properties • Antibiotics Are More Than Agents of Natural Biological Warfare • Synthetic Antibacterial Agents Primarily Inhibit DNA Synthesis and Cell Wall Formation • Sulfonamides Target Specific Metabolic Reactions • Other Synthetic Antimicrobials Are Commonly Prescribed • Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Inhibit Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis • Penicillin Has Remained the Most Widely Used Antibiotic • Other Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Also Inhibit Cell Wall Synthesis • Other Bacterially Produced Antibiotics Inhibit Some Aspect of Metabolism • Vancomycin Also Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis • Polypeptide Antibiotics Affect the Cell Envelope • Many Antibiotics Affect Protein Synthesis • Some Antibiotics Inhibit Nucleic Acid Synthesis • Other Antimicrobial Drugs Target Viruses, Fungi, and Parasites • Antiviral Drugs Interfere with the Viral Replication Cycle • Several Classes of Antifungal Drugs Cause Membrane Damage • The Goal of Antiprotistan Agents Is to Eradicate the Parasite • Antihelminthic Agents Target Nondividing Helminths • Antibiotic Drug Resistance Is a Growing Challenge • There Are Several Antibiotic Susceptibility Assays • Antibiotic Resistance Can Develop and Spread in Several Ways • Antibiotic Resistance Is of Vital Concern in the Medical Community • New Approaches to Antibiotic Therapy Are Needed
Chapter Review

PART 6: ENVIRONMENTAL AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY

Chapter 25: Microbiology of Foods • Food Spoilage Is Generally a Result of Microbial Contamination and Growth • Food Spoilage Comes from Many Microbial Sources • Several Conditions Can Determine if Spoilage Will Occur • The Microorganisms Responsible for Spoilage Produce Specific Products • Meat and Seafood Can Become Contaminated in Several Ways • Poultry and Eggs Can Spoil Quickly • Breads and Bakery Products Can Support Bacterial and Fungal Growth • Some Grains Are Susceptible to Spoilage • Milk and Dairy Products Sometimes Spoil • Food Preservation Inhibits Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms • Heat Denatures Proteins • Low Temperatures Slow Microbial Growth • Drying and Osmotic Pressure Help Preserve Foods • Chemical Preservatives Inhibit Microbial Growth • Foods May Be Irradiated for Pest and Pathogen Elimination • Foodborne Disease Can Result from an Infection or Intoxication • HACCP Systems Attempt to Identify Potential Contamination Points • Many Foods Are the Product of Microbial Metabolism • Many Foods Are Fermented Products • Many Milk Products Are the Result of Fermentation
Chapter Review

Chapter 26: Environmental Microbiology • Water Pollution Includes Biological Changes Harmful to Water Quality • Unpolluted and Polluted Water Contain Different Microbial Populations • There Are Three Types of Water Pollution • Diseases Can Be Transmitted by Water • Proper Treatment of Water and Sewage Ensures Safe Drinking Water • Water Purification Is a Three-Step Process • Sewage Treatment Can Be a Multistep Process • Biofilms Are Prevalent in the Environment • The Bacteriological Analysis of Water Tests for Indicator Organisms • Microbes Are Indispensable for Recycling Major Chemical Elements • The Carbon Cycle Is Influenced by Microorganisms • The Sulfur Cycle Recycles Sulfate Molecules • The Nitrogen Cycle Is Dependent on Microorganisms
Chapter Review

Chapter 27: Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology • Microorganisms Are Used to Produce Many Industrial Products • Microorganisms Produce Many Useful Organic Compounds • Microorganisms Also Produce Important Enzymes and Other Products • Alcoholic Beverages Are Products of Fermentation • Beer Is Produced by the Fermentation of Malted Barley • Wine Is Produced by the Fermentation of Fruit or Plant Extracts • Distilled Spirits Contain More Alcohol than Beer or Wine • Microorganisms Also Produce Many Other Valuable Commercial Products • Many Antibiotics Are the Result of Industrial Production • Some Microbial Products Can Be Used to Control Insects • Fungal Organisms Also Are Being Commercially Developed • Bioremediation Helps Clean Up Pollution Naturally • Industrial Genetic Engineering Continues to Make Advances
Chapter Review


 

About the authors: 

Jeffrey C. Pommerville, PhD-Glendale Community College

Congratulations to Dr. Pommerville who was recently awarded the 2008 Carski Foundation Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching Award!

Jeffrey Pommerville has a Ph.D. in Cell and Organismal Biology from the University of California, Santa Barbara. After serving as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Georgia, he was an assistant professor of biology at Texas A&M University. For the past 14 years, he has been Professor of Biology at Glendale Community College where he teaches introductory biology and microbiology. He has 20 years of research experience in cell biology and microbiology and has authored over 35 peer-reviewed papers in national and international research journals. For the past three years, he was the principal investigator for Systemic Reform In Science (SyRIS), a project funded by the National Science Foundation that was designed to improve student outcomes in science through changes in curriculum and pedagogy that align with national systemic reform initiatives. In 2003, he was awarded the Gustav Ohaus Award (College Division) for Innovations in Science Teaching from the National Science Teachers Association. Over the past three years, he has presented numerous seminars and workshops to colleges, universities, business, medical, and service organizations on understanding and responding to bioterrorism.

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